Once I was a clever boy learning the arts of Oxford... is a quotation from the verses written by Bishop Richard Fleming (c.1385-1431) for his tomb in Lincoln Cathedral. Fleming, the founder of Lincoln College in Oxford, is the subject of my research for a D. Phil., and, like me, a son of the West Riding. I have remarked in the past that I have a deeply meaningful on-going relationship with a dead fifteenth century bishop... it was Fleming who, in effect, enabled me to come to Oxford and to learn its arts, and for that I am immensely grateful.

Sunday, 1 November 2015

All Saints

Today is the Feast of All Saints, and John Dillon has posted some images of them on the Medieval Religion discussion group:

Today, being both November 1st and the Sunday in the octave around November 1st, is in Latin-rite churches and in others influenced by their festal calendars, the feast of All Saints (in Eastern-rite churches, where the observance arose, their celebration falls rather on the first Sunday after Pentecost). Herewith some period-pertinent images associated directly with this veneration in that they either accompany texts for or describing the feast in question or else are parts of altars devoted principally to the cult of All Saints (as opposed, say, to images of the Coronation of the BVM drawing upon the traditional imagery of All Saints). Also included (item k) is one well known image of the saints in their multitude arrayed about the Godhead where a direct connection to the liturgical celebration is not immediately evident.

a) as depicted in a later tenth-century sacramentary from Fulda (c. 975; Göttingen, Niedersächsische Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek, 2 cod. Ms. theol. 231 Cim., fol. 111r):


b) as depicted in the earlier eleventh-century Sacramentary of Robert of Jumièges (c. 1020; Rouen, Bibliothèque Jacques Villon, ms. 274, fol. 158v):


Detail view (losing most of the frame):

c) as depicted in a later twelfth-century sacramentary for the abbaye de St.-Martin in Tours (c. 1170-1180; Tours, Bibliothèque municipale, ms. 193, fol. 115r):


d) as depicted in a later twelfth-century sacramentary from the abbaye de St.-Amand in Saint-Amand (c. 1170-1180; Valenciennes, Bibliothèque de Valenciennes, ms. 108, fol. 46v):

e) as depicted in a perhaps mid-thirteenth-century pontifical and collects concordant with the Use of the abbaye de St.-Pierre at Corbie (Amiens, Bibliothèque Louis Aragon, ms. 195, fol. 132r):
Textual context:

f) as depicted in a later thirteenth-century breviary perhaps from Cambrai (c. 1275-1300; Den Haag, KB, ms. 76 J 18, fol. 470v):

g) as depicted in a late thirteenth-century missal from Auvergne (c. 1280-1290; Clermont-Ferrand, Bibliothèque du Patrimoine, ms. 62, fol. 267v):

h) as depicted in a late thirteenth-century copy of French origin of the Legenda aurea (c. 1280-1300; San Marino, CA, Huntington Library, ms. HM 3027, fol. 150v):

i) as depicted in the earlier fourteenth-century Taymouth Hours (c. 1326-1350; London, BL, Yates Thompson MS 13, fol. 87v):

j) as depicted in a later fourteenth-century Roman Missal of north Italian origin (c. 1370; Avignon, Bibliothèque-Médiathèque Municipale Ceccano, ms. 136, fol. 279r):

k) as depicted by Giusto de' Menabuoi in his later fourteenth-century frescoes (later 1370s) in the central cupola of the battistero di San Giovanni in Padua:


l) as depicted in a late fourteenth-century missal from Autun concordant with the Use of Beaune (1394; Dijon, Bibliothèque municipale, ms. 110, fol. 387r):

m) as depicted in a late fourteenth- or early fifteenth-century altarpiece of Spanish origin in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York:

 The Trinity Adored by All Saints

n) as depicted in an early fifteenth-century missal concordant with the Use of Tours (Tours, Bibliothèque municipale, ms. 185, fol. 251r):

o) as depicted in the early fifteenth-century Belles Heures of Jean de France, Duc de Berry (New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, The Cloisters Collection, ms. 1954 (54.1.1), fol. 218r):

p) as depicted (right-hand column) in the early fifteenth-century Hours of René of Anjou (c. 1405-1410; London, BL, Egerton MS 1070, fol. 103v; image zoomable):

q) as depicted by the Boucicaut Master in an earlier fifteenth-century book of hours made in Paris (c. 1415-1420; Los Angeles, The J. Paul Getty Museum, ms. 22):

r) as depicted by Beato Angelico (probably) in two corresponding panels, flanking the central one of Christ in glory with angels, on the predella of his earlier fifteenth-century San Domenico Altarpiece (1423-1424) in the National Gallery of Art, London:
1) http://tinyurl.com/q4tbmb2
2) http://tinyurl.com/p9ac548
The predella in its entirety:

s) as depicted in the earlier fifteenth-century Breviary of Marie de Savoie (c. 1430; Chambéry, Bibliothèque municipale, ms. 4, fol. 637v):

t) as depicted in the Suffrages in an earlier fifteenth-century prayer book seemingly from Brabant (c. 1430-1440; Baltimore, Walters Art Museum, Walters ms. W.164, fol. 177r):

u) as depicted in a mid-fifteenth-century missal concordant with the Use of Nantes (Le Mans, Médiathèque Louis Aragon, ms. 223, fol. 201r):

v) as depicted in grisaille by Jean le Tavernier in the mid-fifteenth-century Hours of Philip of Burgundy (c. 1451-1460; Use of Paris; Den Haag, KB, ms. 76 F 2, fol. 283r):

w) as depicted by Jean Fouquet at the conclusion of the Suffrages in the now dismembered mid-fifteenth-century Hours of Étienne Chevalier (1450s; this folio in the Musée Condé, Chantilly [Oise], ms. 71, fol. 113r):


x) as depicted at the conclusion of the Suffrages in a later fifteenth-century book of hours made in Bruges (c. 1460; Baltimore, The Walters Art Museum, Walters ms. W.186, fol. 293r):

y) as depicted by Willem Vrelant in the later fifteenth-century Arenberg Hours (early 1460s; Los Angeles, J. Paul Getty Museum and Library, Ms. Ludwig IX 8, fol. 81v):

z) as depicted in a later fifteenth-century prayer book of Viennese origin (c. 1460-1470; Vienna, ÖNB, cod. s. n. 2599, fol. 160r):

aa) as depicted in the later fifteenth-century Ranworth Antiphonal (c. 1460-1480; Ranworth [Norfolk], church of St. Helen, unnumbered ms., fol. 271v):


bb) as depicted by Lieven van Lathem in the later fifteenth-century Prayer Book of Charles the Bold (1469; Los Angeles, J. Paul Getty Museum and Library, Ms. 37, fol. 43r):

cc) as depicted in a late fifteenth-century copy of the Legenda aurea in its French-language version by Jean de Vignay (1493; Angers, Université Catholique de l'Ouest, Bibliothèque universitaire, incunable non coté, fol. 241v):


dd) as depicted by Albrecht Dürer in his early sixteenth-century All Saints altarpiece (1511; a.k.a. the Landauer Altar) in the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna:


The painting at higher resolution:


ee) as portrayed in high relief on the early sixteenth-century altar (1518) in the Allerheiligenkapelle of the Pfarrkirche St. Benedikt in Altmünster (Land Oberösterreich):


Detail view:


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