Once I was a clever boy learning the arts of Oxford... is a quotation from the verses written by Bishop Richard Fleming (c.1385-1431) for his tomb in Lincoln Cathedral. Fleming, the founder of Lincoln College in Oxford, is the subject of my research for a D. Phil., and, like me, a son of the West Riding.

I have remarked in the past that I have a deeply meaningful on-going relationship with a dead fifteenth century bishop...
It was Fleming who, in effect, enabled me to come to Oxford and to learn its arts, and for that I am immensely grateful.

Wednesday, 28 October 2015

St Simon and St Jude

Today is the feast of the Apostles SS Simon and Jude and John Dillon has again posted a selection of images of them on the Medieval Religion discussion group:

Simon (Simon the Zealot; Simon Cananaeus; in Greek, Symeon) and Jude (Jude Thaddaeus, Jude of James) occur next to each other in lists of the Twelve Apostles (Mt 10:3, 4; Mk 3:18; Lk 6:15; Acts 1:13). Contrary to what was thought in the Middle Ages, it is not certain that the apostle Jude was the author of the Epistle that bears his hardly unique name. The reported places and manners of these saints' deaths vary enormously. According to Eusebius of Caesarea, Simon was crucified in very advanced years by order of Atticus, a Roman governor of Palestine under Trajan. He and Jude share a legendary, originally late antique Passio (BHL 7749-7750a) that calls Simon _Simon Chananaeus_ and Jude _Iudas Zelotes_ and that has them evangelizing in what would appear to be Parthia, coming into conflict with magi there, and finally suffering martyrdom on 28. October. Or perhaps they died in Armenia, where they are traditionally considered that nation's apostles along with St. Bartholomew and where Jude (as Thaddaeus) and Bartholomew are commemorated jointly on 28. November. In many Byzantine-rite churches Simon is celebrated on 10. May and Jude is celebrated on 19. June.

Some period-pertinent images of Simon (S.) and/or Jude (J.), apostles:

a) Simon and Jude as depicted (J. at centre; S. at right; at left, St. Bartholomew) in the later fifth-century mosaic ceiling (between 451 and 475) of the Neonian Baptistery / Orthodox Baptistery in Ravenna:


b) Simon and Jude as depicted (S. at far left; J. just above him on the arch soffit) in the very late fifth- or early sixth-century mosaics of the Cappella Arcivescovile (a.k.a. Cappella di Sant'Andrea) in Ravenna:


c) Simon and Jude as depicted in the earlier sixth-century mosaics (betw. 527 and 548) of the triumphal arch in the basilica di San Vitale in Ravenna :

 http://www.kornbluthphoto.com/images/VitaleChancelArch1.jpg [photograph courtesy of Genevra Kornbluth]



d) Simon and Jude as depicted in the earlier sixth-century mosaics (carefully restored, 1890-1900) of the triumphal arch in the Basilica Eufrasiana in Poreč:

St Simon (at far left) 

St Jude (at far right)

e) Simon as depicted in a tenth-century fresco of the Grotta dei Santi in Pignataro Maggiore (CE; near Calvi Risorta) in northern Campania:

f) Simon as depicted in relief (at right; at left, St. Bartholomew) on a later tenth-century ivory reliquary casket (between c. 951 and 1000) of probable Constantinopolitan in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York:

g) Simon (right-hand leaf, at center) and J. (at right; at left, the Emperor Henry III [d. 1056]) as depicted in the mid-eleventh-century Emperor's Bible or Codex Caesareus Upsaliensis, formerly at Echternach (Uppsala, Universitetsbibliotek, cod. C 93, fol. 4r):


h) Simon and Jude as portrayed on later eleventh-century coins from Frisia and from the imperial mint in Goslar:

i) Simon (at left; at right, St. James) as depicted in the eleventh- or twelfth-century frescoes of the Eski Gümüş monastery near Gümüşler in the Turkish province of Niğde:


j) Simon (lower register at left) as depicted in the mid-twelfth-century apse mosaics (completed in 1148) of the basilica cattedrale della Trasfigurazione in Cefalù:


Detail view:

k) Simon (at left; at right, St. Bartholomew) as depicted in the mid-twelfth-century mosaics (between 1146 and 1151) of the chiesa di Santa Maria dell'Ammiraglio (a.k.a. chiesa della Martorana) in Palermo:


l) Simon and Jude as portrayed in high relief by Gruamonte at different locations in his sculpture of Christ, the apostles, and flanking angels (c. 1167) on the lintel above the central portal on the face of Pistoia's chiesa di San Bartolomeo in Pantano:
Simon (second from left; betw. an angel and St. Matthew): http://tinyurl.com/nrl6ewe
Jude (second from left; betw. St. Andrew and St. James): http://tinyurl.com/qafv6yg

m) Jude (third from left) and Simon (at far right) as portrayed in relief by Anselmo da Campione in his Last Supper panel on the later twelfth-century parapet (pontile; c. 1170-1180) in the cattedrale di San Geminiano in Modena:

n) Simon as depicted in the later twelfth-century Ascension fresco (c. 1176-1200) in the church of St. George in Staraya Ladoga (Leningrad oblast):

o) Jude as depicted in a seemingly later twelfth-century New Testament perhaps from Cyprus or Palestine (c. 1176-1200; Paris, BnF, Ms. Coislin 200, fol. 207r):

p) Simon and Jude (martyrdom; both by the the lance) as depicted in the late twelfth-century Navarre Picture Bible (1197; Amiens, Bibliothèque Louis Aragon, ms. 108, fol. 211r):

q) Simon (at left, with another disciple; at right, undergoing a beating before the seated Atticus) as depicted in the later twelfth- or early thirteenth-century frescoes in the santuario di Maria SS. Regina (a.k.a. Santa Maria d'Anglona) at Tursi (MT) in Basilicata:

r) Simon and Jude as depicted (with scenes from their Passio) in the earlier thirteenth-century window devoted to them (c. 1220-1225) in the basilique cathédrale Notre-Dame in Chartres (for detail views, click on the numbered panels at right):

s) Simon as depicted in the mid-thirteenth-century Touke Psalter from Bruges (c. 1250-1260; Baltimore, Walters Art Museum, Walters ms. W.36, fol. 61v):

t) Simon and Jude as depicted in the later thirteenth-century frescoes of the ceiling of the baptistery of Parma:

u) Simon and Jude as portrayed in silver gilt statuettes on the later thirteenth-century copper gilt châsse of St. Remaclus (completed between 1263 and 1268) in the église Saint-Sébastien in Stavelot:




v) Simon and Jude as portrayed in the late thirteenth-century pier statues in the choir of Köln's Hohe Domkirche Sankt Peter und Maria [ which claims to have some of St Simon's relics ]:

 Photo: © Dombauarchiv Köln

St Simon  

 Photo: © Dombauarchiv Köln

St Jude

w) Simon and Jude as depicted (martyrdom; both by the sword) in a late thirteenth-century copy of French origin of the Legenda aurea (San Marino, CA, Huntington Library, ms. HM 3027, fol. 148r):

x) Simon (at left; martyrdom by crucifixion) and Jude (at right; martyrdom by the sword) as depicted in the late thirteenth-century Livre d'images de Madame Marie (ca. 1285-1290; Paris, BnF, ms. Nouvelle acquisition française 16251, fol. 70r):

y) Simon as depicted in the fourteenth-century apse frescoes of the basilica di Sant'Abbondio in Como:

z) Simon and as Jude depicted by Duccio di Buoninsegna on his early fourteenth-century Maestà (between 1308 and 1311) in the Museo dell'Opera del Duomo in Siena:
Simon: http://www.artflakes.com/de/products/duccio-apostel-simon
Jude: http://www.artflakes.com/de/products/duccio-apostel-thaddaeus

aa) Simon as depicted (lower register, second from left) in separate calendar compositions in the earlier fourteenth-century frescoes (between c.1312 and 1321/1322) of the narthex in the monastery church of the Theotokos at Gračanica in, depending upon one's view of the matter, either the Republic of Kosovo or Serbia's province of Kosovo and Metohija:
Siomon (May calendar; lower register, second from left; crucified):
Detail view:
Jude (June calendar; lower register, at far right; trussed and hanging from a pole):

bb) Simon and Jude as depicted in earlier fourteenth-century panel paintings by the workshop of Simone Martini (c. 1320) in the National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC:


cc) Simon and Jude (martyrdom; both crucified, Jude also pierced by a lance) as depicted under separate days in an earlier fourteenth-century pictorial menologion from Thessaloniki (betw. 1322 and 1340; Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Gr. th. f. 1, fols. 39r, 44r):
Simon (at left in panel at lower left):
Jude (at left in panel at lower left):

dd) Simon (at left) and Jude (at right) as depicted by Ugolino di Nerio in an earlier fourteenth-century panel painting (?c. 1325-1328; from his dismembered Santa Croce altarpiece) in the National Gallery, London:


Zoomable image:

ee) Simon and Jude (martyrdom; both by the sword) as depicted in an earlier fourteenth-century French-language legendary of Parisian origin with illuminations attributed to the Fauvel Master (c. 1327; Paris, BnF, ms. Français 183, fol. 53r):

ff) Simon and Jude as depicted in an earlier fourteenth-century copy, from the workshop of Richard and Jeanne de Montbaston, of the Legenda aurea in its French-language version by Jean de Vignay (1348; Paris, BnF, ms. Français 241, fol. 286r):

gg) Simon as depicted in the later fourteenth-century frescoes (1360s and 1370s; restored, 1968-1970) in the church of St. Demetrius in Marko's Monastery at Markova Sušica:

hh) Simon (at left) and Jude (at right) as depicted by Lorenzo Salimbeni on the wings of his late fourteenth-century altarpiece of the mystical marriage of St. Catherine of Siena (1400) in the Pinacoteca civica "Padre Pietro Tacchi Venturi" of San Severino Marche:

A closer view (better for some details but not for colour):

ii) Simon and Jude as portrayed in high relief (fifth and sixth from left) on one of the long sides of the late fourteenth- or early fifteenth-century tomb of St. Wendelin in his basilica in Sankt Wendel:

jj) Simon and Jude as depicted on different ranges of the fifteenth-century chancel screen of the church of St. Helen, Ranworth (Norfolk):
Simon (at left; at right, St. Thomas the Apostle):


Jude (at left; at right, St. Matthew the Apostle):


kk) Jude (at left; martyrdom by halberd) and S. (at right; martyrdom by a short sword) as depicted in a fifteenth-century panel painting of Rhineland origin in the Pinacoteca Vaticana:

ll) Simon and Jude (at left and at centre, respectively; at right, St. Margaret of Antioch) as portrayed in an early fifteenth-century (c. 1410) altar frontal in wool, linen, and silk from Strasbourg / Straßburg now in the Museum für Angewandte Kunst, Frankfurt am Main:


mm) Simon (at left) and Jude (at right) as depicted in an earlier fifteenth-century Franciscan breviary (c. 1430; Chambéry, Bibliothèque municipale, ms. 4, fol. 636r):

nn) Simon as depicted in the earlier fifteenth-century Hours of Catherine of Cleves (c. 1440; New York, The Pierpont Morgan Library and Museum, Morgan MS M.917, p. 233):

oo) Jude as depicted in a mid-fifteenth-century Dutch-language history bible (1443; Den Haag, KB, ms. 69 B 10, fol. 187r):

pp) Jude (at left, holding a club) and Simon (at right, holding a saw) as depicted in a later fifteenth-century copy of Jean Mansel's Fleur des histoires (c. 1451-1475; Paris, Bibliothèque Mazarine, ms. 1560, fol. 195v):

qq) Simon and Jude as depicted (overcoming demons in the presence of magi and of the king of Babylon) in a later fifteenth-century copy of Vincent of Beauvais' Speculum historiale in its French-language version by Jean de Vignay (1463; Paris, BnF, ms. Français 50, fol. 335v):

rr) Simon and James as depicted (accused by magi) in an even later fifteenth-century copy (ca. 1480-1490) of Vincent of Beauvais' Speculum historiale in its French-language version by Jean de Vignay (Paris, BnF, ms. Français 245, fol. 148v):

ss) Simon and Jude as depicted by Miguel Ximénez and workshop in adjacent panels of his and Martín Bernad's late fifteenth-century altarpiece of the Holy Cross (completed, 1487) for the parish church of Blesa (Teruel) and now, after dismemberment, mostly in the Museo de Zaragoza:
Simon: (at right; at left, St. Matthew the Apostle):

Jude: (at left; at right, St. Matthias the Apostle):

tt) Simon and Jude as depicted (martyrdom) in hand-coloured woodcuts in the Beloit College copy of Hartmann Schedel's late fifteenth-century Weltchronik (Nuremberg Chronicle; 1493):
Simon (fol. CVIIv; martyrdom by club and by sword): http://tinyurl.com/9vusjwo
Jude (fol. CVIIr; martyrdom by clubs): http://tinyurl.com/997h3ez

uu) Simon (at left, with a saw) and Jude (at right, with a lance) as depicted in the late fifteenth- or early sixteenth-century Master of the Dark Eyes Missal from Utrecht (c. 1500; Baltimore, Walters Art Museum, Walters ms. W.175, fol. 201r):

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