Once I was a clever boy learning the arts of Oxford... is a quotation from the verses written by Bishop Richard Fleming (c.1385-1431) for his tomb in Lincoln Cathedral. Fleming, the founder of Lincoln College in Oxford, is the subject of my research for a D. Phil., and, like me, a son of the West Riding. I have remarked in the past that I have a deeply meaningful on-going relationship with a dead fifteenth century bishop... it was Fleming who, in effect, enabled me to come to Oxford and to learn its arts, and for that I am immensely grateful.

Friday, 30 November 2012

Relics of St Andrew

This year I am adapting a post about his relics and depiction in art from John Dillon on the Medieval Religion discussion group for today. With regard to images I have concentrated on the western depictions of St Andrew, and will publish them in a seperate post.

According to Eusebius, St Andrew preached in Scythia, by which latter quite possibly is meant the Roman province of this name erected by Diocletian in today's south-eastern Romania and north-eastern Bulgaria (Ukrainians and Russians think otherwise, of course). Theodoret has Andrew preaching in Greece. From at least the fourth century onward it has been believed that he suffered martyrdom at Patras.

As will be seen there are several  skulls claimed to be his - probably more than even the explanation of skull fragments that have been scattered and venerated as if they were the whole relic.

In 357 relics venerated as Andrew's were brought from Patras to Constantinople's church of the Holy Apostles. Scots believe that in the eighth century St. Regulus (Rule) brought (some of ?) Andrew's relics from Constantinople to today's St Andrews in Fife. Two illustrated pages on the St Rule Tower and the ruins of St Andrews cathedral at St Andrews can be read here and here

In 1208 Andrew's remains were brought, following the Fourth Crusadw of 1204, from Constantinople to Amalfi, where they are now housed in the cathedral dedicated to him. Then, in the 1460s the Despot of Morea, Thomas Palaeologus,  brought with him into exile in Italy a head said to be that of St. Andrew. Pope Pius II  acquired it for the Roman church and, seizing upon this capital opportunity, use it as a propaganda device for his projected crusade against the Turks;  Cardinal Bessarion delivered a welcoming speech to this relic of Andrew in the apostle's partial presence in 1462. In 1964 Pope Paul VI  returned this relic, plus a finger bone from Andrew's relics in Amalfi, to the Greek Orthodox church in Patras as part of his search for reconciliation with the Orthodox.

The opening page of Pope Pius II's account of St Andrew's reception in Italy (with an illuminated initial showing Pope  Pius holding a bust or the reliquary of St Andrew) in a contemporary (1463-1464) collection of writings by this pontiff
(Paris, BnF, ms. Latin 5565 A, fol. 1r):

Image; Biblioteque National Paris


The skull reliquary at Patras


The upper part of a skull is among St Andrew's putative relics at Amalfi.  Some views of it taken when it was on display at Sant'Andrea della Valle in Rome in 2008 for the 800th anniversary of his translation to Amalfi can, hopefully, be seen in these expanded views  here, here, here and here.

St Andrew's right foot is said to be in the monastery of Agios Andreas on Kefalonia. Other relics believed to be his are in the skete of St. Andrew on Mount Athos, a Russian foundation honouring one of that country's patron saints. Here is a view of a reliquary belonging to that monastery and said to contain Andrew's skull:


Image: serko.net/50/athos/KaryesandStAndrewsSkete

The Vatopedi monastery on Mount Athos has what is described as a relic of Andrew's right hand:

Click to view full size image

Image: eikonografos.com

From at least 1250 until 1979, when it was transferred to the church at Patras, a cross believed to be that of St Andrew was preserved in the church of St. Victor at Marseilles. 

At Trier there is this reliquary of one of St Andrew's sandals:

St. Andrew's Altar (c.980)

St. Andrew's Portable Altar, made c.980 AD in Trier

Image: sacred-destinations.com

This reliquary enshrines a sole of St. Andrew the Apostle's sandal. This relic is one of those said to have been brought from the Holy Land to Trier by Empress Helena in the 4th century. The splendid reliquary was commissioned by Archbishop Egbert (977-93), who had a special devotion to Saint Andrew.

It is described as portable altar, but I am not clear how it could have served that purpose. It consists of an oak box covered in gold and ivory and topped with a gilded model of the saint's foot, complete with bejewelled sandal strap. It has a sliding lid so that the relics inside could be shown and touched. The long sides are fixed with smooth ivory plates affixed with gold lions and enamel medallions of the Four Evangelists. The plates are surrounded by bands of enamel platelets, gemstones, and pearls. One of the short ends has two Saint Andrew's crosses made of pearls; the other end has a gold coin with the portrait of Emperor Justinian I surrounded by pearls and red garnet. The reliquary was made to be portable, so that it could be carried by kings and bishops when they travelled and used for Mass when they were at home. There are rings on the lion-shaped feet and on the top, allowing the portable altar to be hung or carried in processions.


Anonymous said...

Luke 15:11-32; Luke 15:1-32; Luke 15:11; Genesis 41:42; Romans 6:23; Acts 17:28; Luke 15:32; Luke 15:22; Luke 15:21; Luke 15:20; Luke 15:17; Luke 15:16; Luke 15:13; Luke 15:12; Luke 15:11-24; Hosea 13:14; Isaiah 55:8-9; Isaiah 1:1-31; James 3:6; Proverbs 18:24; John 15:13; Ecclesiastes 4:9-12; Proverbs 27:17; Proverbs 17:17; Proverbs 27:6; Hebrews 10:24-25; 1 Thessalonians 5:11; Proverbs 27:9; Job 6:14; Ruth 1:17; Proverbs 27:19; 1 Peter 4:8-10; 1 Corinthians 13:1-13; Proverbs 16:28; 1 Samuel 22:23; Proverbs 22:24-27; Psalms 41:9; 1 Corinthians 15:33; Psalms 55:12-14; Proverbs 17:9; Proverbs 27:10; Hebrews 13:5; Romans 1:12; Proverbs 25:17; John 15:12-14; Amos 3:3; Job 2:11-13; 1 John 2:6; Psalms 88:18; Job 19:13-22; 2 Timothy 4:16; 1 Samuel 18:1-4; 1 Samuel 16:1; John 3:16; Proverbs 27:14; 2 Samuel 17:1-22; 2 Samuel 15:32-37; 2 Samuel 9:1-13; 2 Peter 3:9; James 4:4; Philippians 2:20; Ephesians 4:1-6; Acts 2:42; John 7:37; Mark 16:16; Matthew 18:20; Song of Solomon 1:1-17; Job 16:20; Job 6:15; 2 Kings 8:29; 2 Kings 8:28; 1 Kings 5:1; 2 Samuel 15:19-21; 2 Samuel 10:2; 2 Samuel 1:17-27; 1 Samuel 23:16-18; 1 Samuel 18:20; 1 Samuel 18:1; Ruth 1:16; Genesis 14:14-16; Revelation 3:20; 1 John 1:9; Philippians 2:22; John 19:26; Amos 2:4; Daniel 2:49; Proverbs 11:13; 2 Samuel 15:16; 1 Samuel 15:35; 1 John 3:7; Philippians 2:19; Romans 16:4; Acts 23:16; John 21:7; John 20:11-18; John 11:1-46; John 1:1-51; Luke 10:38-42; Mark 9:37; Matthew 28:1-8; Proverbs 25:19; 2 Kings 9:16; Deuteronomy 10:17; 1 John 2:1; Colossians 3:1; Romans 16:3 St. Andrew intercede for us, cleansing, healing, deliverance of false or pagan religions against the above scripture passages, Erich, godchild.

Anonymous said...

2 Samuel 22:5; 2 Chronicles 19:2; Job 16:11; Job 34:18; Psalms 1:1; Psalms 1:4; Psalms 1:5; Psalms 1:6; Psalms 3:7; Psalms 18:4; Psalms 43:1; Psalms 73:12; Proverbs 16:27; Proverbs 19:28; Romans 4:5; Romans 5:6;
1 Timothy 1:9; 1 Peter 4:18; 2 Peter 2:5; 2 Peter 2:6; 2 Peter 3:7; Jude 1:4; Jude 1:15; Jude 1:18

Deuteronomy 31:6; 2Samuel 23:12; Psalm 3:6; Psalm 37:23-24; Isaiah 40:31; Psalm 37:5; Matthew 19:26; Mark 9:23; Philippians 4:13; 1Corinthians 9:24-27; Ephesians 6:13; Colossians 3:23-24; 1Timothy 4:8; 1Timothy 4:12; 2Timothy 2:5; Hebrews 12:1; Hebrews 12:11; Hebrews 12:12; Hebrews 12:13; Philippians 2:3; Proverbs 25:27

Thank you St. Andrew, for answered prayer! Healing cleansing deliverance in the above scripture passages, bondage breaking, covenants, seals, spells. Erich, my nieces/nephwes, godchild, parents, grandparents, greatgrandparents.

Anonymous said...

I offer my son's job, education, self-esteem, my small business, clients, relationships, etc. for protection and intercession. RF Design (A Commercial Art Studio, TraDigital)