Once I was a clever boy learning the arts of Oxford... is a quotation from the verses written by Bishop Richard Fleming (c.1385-1431) for his tomb in Lincoln Cathedral. Fleming, the founder of Lincoln College in Oxford, is the subject of my research for a D. Phil., and, like me, a son of the West Riding. I have remarked in the past that I have a deeply meaningful on-going relationship with a dead fifteenth century bishop... it was Fleming who, in effect, enabled me to come to Oxford and to learn its arts, and for that I am immensely grateful.

Friday, 30 November 2012

St Andrew in art

Here is a selection from the images of St Andrew posted by John Dillon


St Andrew as depicted in an early eleventh-century illumination (ca. 1020) in a sacramentary now at Rouen
(Rouen, Bibliothèque municipale, ms. 274, fol. 164v)

Image: enluminures.culture.fr
Here are two views of a twelfth-century statue, probably of the later 1140s or 1170s, from the destroyed tomb of St. Lazarus in the latter's collegiate church in Autun, now in that city's Musée Rolin. It is attributed to the monk Martin and belongs to the great sculptural tradition of twelfth centuy Autun:

St Andrew

Image: World Gallery of Art

Lazarus Monument: Saint Andrew

Side view of the statue

Image: Sacred Destinations

Fifteenth century Rood screen at Gooderstone church in Norfolk
St Andrew stands between St Peter and St James the Great  and St John (partial view)
Each apostle carries his emblem, and has the verse attributed to him from the Apostles Creed above his head.
St Andrew's costume is similar in its style and colouring - green mantle and pink or purple gown - to other images of him from the period, and which became part of the design of the insignia of the Order of the Thistle.

Image: johnevigar on Flickr
Although in Britain he is traditionally associated with a saltire cross in his martyrdom this is not always the convention on the continent. Thus his martyrdom is shown as happening on a conventional cross as in this illumination in an earlier thirteenth-century psalter (ca. 1230-1240) from Hildesheim:

Image: BnF in Paris (ms. Nouvelle acquisition latine 3102, fol. 6v)

Saint Andrew
Possibly 1326 or ca. 1330
Simone Martini (Sienese, active by 1315, died 1344)
Tempera on wood, gold ground
Metropolitan Museum of Art New York

Image: Metropolitan Museum


St Andrew (at right) as depicted in a panel painting of 1395 by Taddeo di Bartolo, now in the Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest.
Here again he carries an upright cross of martyrdom rather than the more usual saltire form.

Image: World Gallery of Art
St Andrew suffers martyrdom on a tree
Panel painting (ca. 1490) by Carlo Braccesco
 Galleria Franchetti, Ca' d'Oro, Venice

Image: World Gallery of Art


St Andrew holding his traditional saltire cross as portrayed in an earlier sixteenth-century pen-and-ink design for a stained glass window (ca. 1519-1521) by Hans Holbein the Younger,
Kunstmuseum Basel

Image: Wikipedia

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