Today is the feast of St Wenceslas, the patron saint of Bohemia, and revered in that country as an exemplary ruler. There is an account of his life and murder, and of his cult and legend, at Wenceslaus I, Duke of Bohemia
One of the principal devotees of St Wenceslas was the fourteenth century Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV, who was also King of Bohemia. That realm was his territorial power base within the Empire and he sought to develop Prague as a worthy capital. This included the rebuilding of the cathedral of St Vitus, of the Charles Bridge, the founding of the Charles University - the first in the Empire - and the building of his castle at Karlstejn outside the city. Artists were employed to celebrate the cult of St Wenceslas and to celebrate the Emperor and his family. One of the Emperor’s commissions was the Crown of St Wenceslas. Made in 1346-7 it was originally displayed on a reliquary bust of the saint. It has served ever since as the Crown of Bohemia, and was last used at a coronation in 1836. There is a history of it at Crown of Saint Wenceslas.
The crown and its history and legends are also described in Legends of the Bohemian Crown Jewels
The Emperor Charles IV was to be crowned many times - I think he must hold the record amongst European monarchs - receiving coronation as King of Bohemia, King of the Romans ( twice ), King of Italy, King of Burgundy and Holy Roman Emperor. This is set out in an article on Medieval Histories at Crowns of Charles IV of Bohemia
The same site has a series of interesting articles about the Emperor, his life, reign and patronage, as well as his place in the Czech memory, which can be accessed from Charles IV (1316 - 1378) – King of Bohemia and Holy Roman Emperor
St Wenceslas Pray for Bohemia, Pray for us