Once I was a clever boy learning the arts of Oxford... is a quotation from the verses written by Bishop Richard Fleming (c.1385-1431) for his tomb in Lincoln Cathedral. Fleming, the founder of Lincoln College in Oxford, is the subject of my research for a D. Phil., and, like me, a son of the West Riding.

I have remarked in the past that I have a deeply meaningful on-going relationship with a dead fifteenth century bishop...
It was Fleming who, in effect, enabled me to come to Oxford and to learn its arts, and for that I am immensely grateful.


Friday, 28 August 2015

St Louis in medieval art


To mark the feast day of St Louis on August 25th John Dillon posted the following images of the Saint-King, who ruled France from 1226 until 1270, on the Medieval Religion discussion group. I have opened and copied some of the more spectacular images, but all are worth investigating:

a) as depicted (upper register at right; upper register at left, his mother Queen Blanche of Castille) in the dedication illumination of an earlier thirteenth-century picture bible (circa 1230; New York, The Pierpont Morgan Library and Museum, MS M.240, fol. 8r):




b) as depicted (carrying the Crown of Thorns with Robert of Artois to Sens) in a panel of the mid-thirteenth-century Relics of the Passion Window (window A; ca. 1245-1248) in the Sainte-Chapelle in Paris:



c) as depicted (carrying the Crown of Thorns) in a mid-thirteenth-century glass window panel from Tours (circa 1245-1248) in the Cloisters Collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York:

King Louis IX Carrying the Crown of Thorns


d) as depicted at the outset of the dedicatory letter to him in a mid- to later thirteenth-century copy of Vincent of Beauvais' Speculum historiale formerly owned by the abbey of Royaumont (Dijon, Bibliothèque municipale, ms. 568, fol. 9r):
http://www.enluminures.culture.fr/Wave/savimage/enlumine/irht6/IRHT_094713-p.jpg

e) as depicted in a later thirteenth-century legendary (ca. 1273-1300; Rouen, Bibliothèque publique, ms. 1410, fol. 3r):
http://www.enluminures.culture.fr/Wave/savimage/enlumine/irht6/IRHT_101412-p.jpg

f) as depicted in a later thirteenth-century copy of the Grandes chroniques de France (1274?; Paris, Bibliothèque Sainte-Geneviève, ms. 782, fol. 327r):
http://www.enluminures.culture.fr/Wave/savimage/enlumine/irht15/IRHT_026819-p.jpg

g) as depicted (carrying the Crown of Thorns) in the later thirteenth-century martyrology and obituary of the abbaye Notre-Dame des Prés in Douai (ca. 1275-1300; Valenciennes, Bibliothèque de Valenciennes, ms. 838, fol. 101r):
http://www.enluminures.culture.fr/Wave/savimage/enlumine/irht5/IRHT_092290-p.jpg

h) as portrayed in a late thirteenth- or early fourteenth-century polychromed statue (circa 1300) formerly in the Sainte-Chapelle in Paris and now in the Musée national du Moyen Âge (Musée de Cluny) in the same city:
http://www.sculpturesmedievales-cluny.fr/notices/notice.php?id=667  This has an account of the statue.



The statue's modern copy in the Sainte-Chapelle in Paris:
https://c2.staticflickr.com/4/3337/3664528845_9db0da0bd0_b.jpg

i) as depicted in an early fourteenth-century sacramentary for the Use of Senlis (ca. 1310; Paris, Bibliothèque Sainte-Geneviève, ms. 103, fol. 278r):
http://www.enluminures.culture.fr/Wave/savimage/enlumine/irht15/IRHT_023729-p.jpg

j) as depicted (at left; at right, St. Louis of Toulouse) by Simone Martini in his early fourteenth-century frescoes (ca. 1310-1320) in the cappella di San Martino in the lower church of the basilica di San Francesco in Assisi:



k) as depicted (two of eight scenes illustrating his Dominican Office) by Jean Pucelle in the earlier fourteenth-century Hours of Jeanne d'Évreux (ca. 1324–1328) in the Cloisters Collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York:
1) receiving from a dove his lost prayer book (fol. 154v): http://images.metmuseum.org/CRDImages/cl/original/DP233778.jpg
2) collecting the bones of martyrs (fol. 159v):
 http://tinyurl.com/np6bex2

l) as depicted (three of numerous scenes from his life) by Mahiet in the earlier fourteenth-century sole copy of William of Saint-Pathus' thematically organized Vie et miracles de Saint Louis (circa 1330-1340; Paris, BnF, ms. Français 5716; foliation acc. to the digitization in Gallica):
1) going by ship on crusade (fol. 39v):
http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b8447303m/f48.item
2) instructing his offspring (fol. 43v):
http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b8447303m/f52.item
3) praying before the Crown of Thorns in the Sainte-Chapelle (fol. 67r):
http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b8447303m/f75.item

m) as depicted (with Innocent IV at Cluny) in a later fourteenth-century copy (ca. 1375-1380) of the Grandes chroniques de France (Paris, BnF, ms. Français 2813, fol. 277r):
http://tinyurl.com/ovsjktq

n) as depicted (at his coronation) in the second volume of a late fourteenth- or early fifteenth-century copy of Don Gonzalo de la Hinojosa's chronicle of Burgos in its French-language translation by Jean Golein (ca. 1400; Besançon, Bibliothèques municipales, ms. 1150, fol. 287r):



o) as depicted (right-hand column) in the early fifteenth-century Hours of René of Anjou (ca. 1405-1410; London, BL, Egerton MS 1070, fol. 99v; image zoomable):
http://www.bl.uk/catalogues/illuminatedmanuscripts/ILLUMIN.ASP?Size=mid&IllID=48379

p) as depicted in an early fifteenth-century breviary for the Use of Paris (ca. 1414; Châteauroux, Bibliothèque municipale, ms. 2, fol. 298v):
http://www.enluminures.culture.fr/Wave/savimage/enlumine/irht2/IRHT_054144-p.jpg

q) as depicted in grisaille by Jean le Tavernier and assistant in the Suffrages of the mid-fifteenth-century Hours of Philip of Burgundy (ca. 1450-1460; Den Haag, KB, ms. 76 F 2, fol. 268r):
http://manuscripts.kb.nl/zoom/BYVANCKB%3Amimi_76f2%3A268r_min

r) as depicted (at left center; at right center, Bl. Charlemagne) as depicted in a later fifteenth-century copy of the Grandes chroniques de France (ca. 1460; Châteauroux, Bibliothèque municipale, ms. 5, fol. 282v):



s) as depicted (carrying the Crown of Thorns) in a late fifteenth-century breviary for the Use of Langres (after 1481; Chaumont, Bibliothèque municipale, ms. 33, fol. 340r):
http://www.enluminures.culture.fr/Wave/savimage/enlumine/irht6/IRHT_096983-p.jpg

t) as depicted in a late fifteenth-century copy (1493) of the Legenda aurea in its French-language version by Jean de Vignay (Angers, Université Catholique de l'Ouest, Bibliothèque universitaire, incunable non coté, fol. 290v):
http://www.enluminures.culture.fr/Wave/savimage/enlumine/irht16/IRHT_043130-p.jpg

u) as depicted on a wing of a late fifteenth- or very early sixteenth-century triptych (ca. 1495-1501?; Bl. Charlemagne on the other wing) in the Cappella del Santissimo Salvatore in Naples:
http://www.ilportaledelsud.org/images/casati/ss08.jpg

v) as depicted in a late fifteenth- or early sixteenth-century book of hours for the Use of Rome (ca. 1500; Den Haag, KB, ms. 74 G 22, fol. 201r):
http://manuscripts.kb.nl/zoom/BYVANCKB%3Amimi_74g22%3A201r


Thursday, 27 August 2015

Brazilian Monarchists take to the streets


The indefatigable Special Correspondent ( whom I had the pleasure of meeting up with by chance in Oxford last weekend) has sent me this link to a Facebook page about the current activities of Brazilian monarchists. This suggests that support for the admittedly divided Imperial House is surprisingly strong given that the country was declared to be a republic on 1889.

The article as posted which is in French, and has some rather striking photographs, can be viewed at https://www.facebook.com/VexillaGalliae/posts/525434377612241


The Imperial Arms of Brazil

Image: Wikimedia


Celebrating Bl. Dominic Barberi with a French choir


Yesterday evening to augment the celebration of the feast of Bl. Dominic Barberi the Oxford Oratory welcomed the Little Singers of Saint-Charles - Les Petits Chanteurs de Saint-Charles - from Versailles.

This Children's choir, founded by Fr Roger Morandi in 1983 are on their first English tour and their itinerary includes the Catholic cathedrals in Portsmouth, Arundel and Southwark, St George's Chapel Windsor and in Oxford both Christ Church Cathedral and the Oratory.

In the programme notes they state that their mission "is to sing the Lord and his wonders and to radiate faith and Christian joy. Our young singers receive both a musical and a spiritual education for without a living faith, sacred music is reduced to a purely artistic gesture and loses it's meaning."

They sang both for the Mass at 6 and then gave a concert of pieces from their classical repertoire. The singing was very beautiful, in a disciplined and reverent style - their spiritual formation as outlined above being apparent. It was a delightful way both  to mark the feast and to relax on a late summer evening.

Their web site can be seen at http://petits-chanteurs-st-charles.fr


Wednesday, 26 August 2015

Historical fact and fiction


As a historian I am only too aware of the popular misconceptions about life in the past and how cinema and television produce, popularise and sustain them.

Quite by chance I came across this piece on the internet from the Sydney Morning Herald which discusses a particular example of this and which I thought might interest readers.

Written by Professor Garry Sturgess and published in the paper last March it can be viewed at Convicts and sex slaves: sorting the fact from the fiction in British TV series 'Banished' and in it the Professor does an effective demolition job on what appears to be a very badly researched historical drama, and which is full of contemporary prejudices and delusions.

It almost makes you want to watch the series so you can sit there and say to your friends " No, that's not true ... no, it would n't have been like that... no, that is simply ridiculous..."


Tuesday, 25 August 2015

King Ludwig II of Bavaria


Today is the 170th anniversary of the birth in 1845 of the future King Ludwig II of Bavaria, and the feast day of patronal namesake St Louis of France.


Het Naero-dal met den Iordalsnut. (Phot. Wilse, Kristiania.)

King Ludwig II in his robes of state soon after his accession

Image:hellenicaworld.com


There is an illustrated online biography of the King at Ludwig II of Bavaria.  

There is also online an article from the Daily Telegraph from last year, Bavaria's 'Mad King' Ludwig may not have been so mad ..., which suggests alternative diagnoses 
for his actions, and of those who suspended him from his executive powers as monarch in 1886. It also 
has links to two other articles, one of which suggests that the King was murdered. 






A painting of the King, presumably from soon after his accession to the throne in 1864

Image:withcuriouseyes.blogspot.uk


The Mad Monarchist posted the following piece some months ago about the King: Monarch Profile: King Ludwig II of Bavaria



King Ludwig II circa 1874

 Image: Wikipedia


King Ludwig II is in so many ways a tragic and troubled figure, and worthy of more than being dismissed as "Mad King Ludwig". As King of Bavaria at the time of German unification and all that that both entailed and implied it is perhaps explicable that he sought refuge in his building projects and in detachment from mundane affairs, even though such actions were of questionable help to the Wittelsbach dynasty. The evidence for his own inner demons, and those of his brother and successor King Otto suggest all was not well in the families and palaces of the rulers of Bavaria.

Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Bavaria1835-1918
 The Royal Arms of Bavaria from 1835

Image:unofficialroyalty.com

It is however possible that King Ludwig II should be seen as eccentric rather than mad, and that his building programmes merely ( merely?) carried further the often lavish building projects of other nineteenth century European monarchs and aristocrats - such as the subterranean constructions of a Duke of Portland at Welbeck. How much more exotic as buildings were they than King George IV's Brighton Pavilion or re-medievalising Windsor, Queen Victoria's neo -Scottish baronial Balmoral, some of the Hohenzollern buildings of King Frederick William IV and Emperor William II or king Ferdinand's Gothic fantasy castle at Cintra? If they were more exotic and expensive it was perhaps a logical,-or illogical - development of what had gone before. There was, of course, the little practical problem that King Ludwig was exhausting the accumulated wealth of his family with his extraordinary projects - one can see why ministers worried about his schemes....More recently I suspect the Bavarian tourist authorities have rubbed their hands with glee at what he provided them with.

There is an online biography of King Otto at  Otto of Bavaria and two blog posts about him, which also discuss King Ludwig II at The Mad Monarchist: Monarch Profile: King Otto of Bavaria

and, with some interesting photographs of the family and comments at  King Otto I. of Bavaria (1847-1916) 

These may suggest that there was not a common root cause to the mental state of the two brothers.

Whatever was the cause of the mental instability, if that is what it was and it it was a common factor, of  King Ludwig and King Otto seems to have belonged to their immediate family - it did not affect, so far as anyone ever indicates,  their uncle Prince Regent Luitpold, his son King Lugwig III or his descendants the present Bavarian Royal House.


[Personal Standard of King Louis II c.1864-1886 (Bavaria, Germany)]

The Personal Standard of King Ludwig II

Image:crwflags.com



Monday, 24 August 2015

Something missing at St Bartholomew the Great Smithfield?


Before leaving today and the feast of St Bartholomew it gives me an opportunity to reprise a point I made in my talk the other week to the Second Spring Summer School on A Shattered Culture, about what we have lost in this country due to active iconoclasm in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and through subsequent neglect, and, in this case, from later misunderstanding.

The priory church of St Bartholomew the Great in Smithfield is one of the very few medieval churches to survive in central London, although it is not as well known as it should be. A substantial part of the priory church - presbytery and transepts - survives, and is a fine example of early twelfth century work - the priory was founded by Rahere, jester to King Henry I:


Image: bellatrovata.com




Image: beenthere-donethat.org.uk


When we visit it can be very grateful that it has survived and feel we are seeing something of medieval London. 

However what we are not seeing is the colour that would have enriched the church. This changes the atmosphere  and experience. A medieval church was 'other' than that day to day living because it was, in the modern phrase, 'sacred space.'  Entering a medieval church was to enter a foretaste of Heaven. Yet this point seems still to be lost on so many people. I have even known distinguished academics in medieval history who have dismissed medieval colour schemes as garish and somehow imply we are better off without them.

To visualise the interior of St Bartholomew's as it would once have been is difficult - we have fragments and pieces but little in the way of complete schemes, or if they are they are faded  and pale. At Issoire in central France one such scheme has been recreated in 1857-59 - albeit controversially in the eyes of some, but maybe they also do not like the fact of  colouration. Like St Bartholomew Issoire has stilted arches around the apse making the comparison all the easier:


Image;phototeque-arnaudfiche.com



Image; revue.shakti.pagesperso-orange.fr





Image:auvergnecentrefrance




Image:auvergnecentrefrance



Even if you might quibble about shades and detail as Issoire I still imagine - not having been and only knowing it from photographs - that here one does get and idea of what a great twelfth century church looked like. Just because we have lost that tradition in England does not make it wrong. Scrubbed grey stone is not what twelfth century patrons, architects and artists set out to create. Personally I like the impression I have formed of the interior of Issoire. It's just a case of waking up and smelling the incense...


Image:phototeque-arnaudfrichphoto.com




Image:flickr.com





Image:rando-planetepuydedome.com



St Bartholomew in medieval art



Today is the feast of St Bartholomew. I have slightly adapted the posts by John Dillon and Gordon Plumb on the Medieval Religion discussion group. I have opened some examples and copied and pasted them, but all repay viewing.

Bartholomew was an apostle, thus named by the Synoptic gospels (the name means 'son of Tolmai'), though he is generally identified by most biblical scholars today with the Nathanael of John 1:45-50 and 21:2.

There are no certain traditions about his ministry and death. He is said to have preached in places vaguely called "India", in Lycaonia and other parts of Asia Minor, and, finally, in Armenia. Accounts of his martyrdom vary. In the East he was said either to have been crucified or to have been drowned; medieval Western versions have him flayed alive or decapitated (sometimes both).

The Roman Martyrology gives him an apostolate in India and Armenia, where he is said to have been flayed alive before being beheaded. Tanners and leather workers took him for their patron.

 His relics are claimed to have been translated first to the island of Lipara, then to Beneventum and finally to Rome where they are claimed by the church of St Bartholomew on the Tiber. In the 11th century what was claimed to be an arm of Bartholomew was given to Canterbury by Emma, wife of Cnut, which probably contributed to the diffusion of the cult in England (though he also appears in the Life of Guthlac). 165 ancient English dedications to him, including Crowland Abbey. He is often shown holding a flaying knife and sometimes, as at Grappenhall in Cheshire (see below) with his flayed skin neatly folded across his arm!

Gordon Plumb's selection of English stained glass images:

Acaster Malbis, Holy Trinity, Yorkshire, east window, 3e-4e:
Glass of the c.1340 by the West window workshop of York Minster.
https://www.flickr.com/photos/22274117@N08/2831009917
and detail of head:
https://www.flickr.com/photos/22274117@N08/2833567496

Oxford, Merton College Chapel, nVI, 3b:
glass of c.1305-12.
https://www.flickr.com/photos/22274117@N08/6404936845

Withcote, Withcote Chapel, Leicestershire, nIII, 2a-3a, c.1537:
https://www.flickr.com/photos/22274117@N08/6404936845

Cartmel Priory, Cumbria, east window, A9 15thC.:
https://www.flickr.com/photos/22274117@N08/2892467209

Langport, All Saints, Somerset, east window, C3 15thC.:
https://www.flickr.com/photos/22274117@N08/2829153788

Orchardleigh, St Mary, Somerset nII, 3a 15thC.:
https://www.flickr.com/photos/22274117@N08/2490113513
and detail:
https://www.flickr.com/photos/22274117@N08/2490110905

Metz, Cathédrale Saint-Étienne, Bay 20, martyrdom of St B3, ?1260'S:
https://www.flickr.com/photos/22274117@N08/4313915092

Grappenhall, St Wilfrid, Cheshire, sIII, 1c, c .1334 :
https://www.flickr.com/photos/22274117@N08/2831205960

Folkingham, St Andrew, Lincolnshire, nIII, 3b, head of St B, c.1330-50:
https://www.flickr.com/photos/22274117@N08/2269052939

Melbury Bubb, St Mary, Dorset, wI, 3b (with St Philip), Late 15thc. :
https://www.flickr.com/photos/22274117@N08/3480765682


John Dillon's selection of images illustrates the range of depiction of a saint who was indeed one of the Apostles, but of whom little is known:


a) as depicted (at top, just right of centre) in the later fifth-century mosaic ceiling (between 451 and 475) of the Neonian Baptistery / Orthodox Baptistery in Ravenna (for best results, click to expand the image):
http://tinyurl.com/otuyj8z

b) as depicted in the very late fifth- or early sixth-century mosaics of the Cappella Arcivescovile (a.k.a. Cappella di Sant'Andrea) in Ravenna:
https://www.flickr.com/photos/pelegrino/5779777038/

c) as depicted (at far right, after SS. Simon and Thomas, apostles) in the earlier to mid-sixth-century mosaics of the presbytery arch (carefully restored, 1890-1900) in the Basilica Eufrasiana in Poreč:
http://tinyurl.com/pak3fch 


d) as depicted in relief (at left; at right, St. Simon the Apostle) on a later tenth-century ivory reliquary casket (betw. ca. 951 and 1000) of probable Constantinopolitan origin and now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York:
http://images.metmuseum.org/CRDImages/md/web-large/sf17-190-238s4.jpg 


e) as depicted in the earlier eleventh-century decor (restored between 1953 and 1962) of the monastery of Hosios Loukas near Distomo in Phokis:
1) in mosaic in the narthex of the church of the Theotokos:
http://tinyurl.com/nw6ua39
2) in fresco in the crypt of the katholikon:
http://tinyurl.com/q8cqsgt

f) as depicted (upper margin; martyrdom: crucified and flayed) in a twelfth-century Gospels of probable Constantinopolitan origin (Paris, BnF, ms. Supplément grec 27, fol. 192r):
http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b8593586z/f389.image
A slightly closer view:
http://tinyurl.com/nncdpd4 


g) as portrayed (flayed) in a twelfth-century polychromed columnar stone statue in the iglesia de San Bartolomé in Rebordans (Pontevedra) in Galicia:
http://www.arquivoltas.com/11-Galicia/Tuy-Rebordans%20G27.jpg

http://www.arquivoltas.com/11-Galicia/Tuy-Rebordans%20G26.jpg
http://www.arquivoltas.com/11-Galicia/Tuy-Rebordans%20G28.jpg
The statue's placement in the window niche of the church's apse is recent.

h) as depicted in an earlier twelfth-century legendary (ca. 1101-1133) from the abbey of Cîteaux (Dijon, Bibliothèque municipale, ms. 641, fol. 24v):
http://tinyurl.com/2usjp8m 


i) as depicted (at right in the intrados; at left, St. Simon the Apostle) in the mid-twelfth-century mosaics (ca. 1143) of the chiesa di Santa Maria dell'Ammiraglio (a.k.a. chiesa della Martorana) in Palermo:
http://tinyurl.com/njteyah
Detail view (Bartholomew):
http://tinyurl.com/2mduez


j) as depicted (lower register, at centre between the apostles Simon and Thomas) in the mid-twelfth-century apse mosaics (completed in 1148) of the basilica cattedrale della Trasfigurazione in Cefalù:






k) as depicted (martyrdom: being flayed) in a mid-twelfth-century gradual for the Use of of the abbey of Fontevraud (Limoges, Bibliothèque municipale, ms. 2, fol. 181v):
http://tinyurl.com/2ehh6ht

l) as portrayed in relief (second from left in the Last Supper panel) by Anselmo da Campione on the later twelfth-century parapet / _pontile_ (ca. 1170-1180) in the cattedrale di San Geminiano in Modena:
http://tinyurl.com/ngmwj5c 


m) as portrayed in relief (lower register at far left; next, St. James the Less; then, St. Trophimus of Arles) on the late twelfth-century portal (betw. 1190 and 1200) of the basilique primatiale Saint-Trophime in Arles:
http://tinyurl.com/opdmujc
Detail view (Bartholomew):
http://tinyurl.com/oklfmhq 


n) as depicted (at left, aiding St. Guthlac) in the early thirteenth-century Guthlac Roll (1210) in the British Library (Harley Roll, Y.6, roundel 8):
http://tinyurl.com/dzqy8n



image from http://s3.amazonaws.com/hires.aviary.com/k/mr6i2hifk4wxt1dp/14082213/3be7cce9-54ca-41ed-8f9c-22a91489995f.png




o) as depicted in one of the earlier thirteenth-century glass windows in the choir (baie 106; ca. 1225-1230) of the basilique cathédrale in Reims:
1) full-length image:




2) scenes from his Passio:
http://tinyurl.com/qx5zaz4


p) as depicted (martyrdom: being flayed) in an earlier thirteenth-century collection of saint's lives in their French-language translation by Wauchier de Denain (betw. 1226 and 1250; London, BL, Royal 20 D VI, fol. 42r; image greatly expandable):
http://tinyurl.com/q8vvqwn


q) as depicted (upper margin; martyrdom: being flayed) in an earlier thirteenth-century psalter from Hildesheim (ca. 1230-1240; Paris, BnF, Nouvelle acquisition latine 3102, fol. 5r):
http://tinyurl.com/osessz5

r) as depicted (enthroned) in the circle of the apostles in the later thirteenth-century frescoes (between 1251 and ca. 1273) on the ceiling of the baptistery of Parma:







s) as depicted (holding his flayed skin) in the later thirteenth-century Oscott Psalter (ca. 1265-1270; London, BL, MS Add 50000, fol. 9r):
http://www.bl.uk/manuscripts/Viewer.aspx?ref=add_ms_50000_f009r


t) as depicted (teaching under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit) in a late thirteenth-century book of hours (ca. 1280-1290) for the Use of Thérouanne (Marseille, Bibliothèque municipale, ms. 111, fol. 60r):
http://tinyurl.com/2dzrzrt

u) as depicted (martyrdom: decapitation) in a later thirteenth-century collection of saint's lives in French (1285; Paris, BnF, ms. Français 412, fol. 46v):
http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b84259980/f102.item


v) as depicted (martyrdom: being flayed) in the late thirteenth-century Livre d'images de Madame Marie (ca. 1285-1290; Paris, BnF, ms. Nouvelle acquisition française 16251, fol. 67v):
http://tinyurl.com/2bkjjkb


w) as depicted (panel at far left, followed by those for St. Ansanus, St. Crescentius, and St. Savinus) as one of Siena's patron saints by Duccio di Buoninsegna in his relatively recently restored late thirteenth-century great window (1287-1288) for that city's cathedral (now in the Museo dell'Opera della Metropolitana):
http://tinyurl.com/nlbn8ut

x) as depicted (second from left) in an earlier fourteenth-century fresco (betw. 1301 and 1350) in the chiesa di San Tommaso di Canterbury at Corenno Plinio in Dervio (LC) in Lombardy:
http://tinyurl.com/34pfo7o

y) as depicted in an earlier fourteenth-century glass window (betw. 1301 and 1350) in Hörsne kyrka (Gotland):
http://tinyurl.com/n9dt9n7


z) as depicted (at right; at left, St. James the Less) by Duccio di Buoninsegna in his early fourteenth-century Maestà altarpiece (betw. 1308-1311) in the Museo del Opera del Duomo in Siena:






aa) as depicted in the earlier fourteenth-century apse frescoes (betw. ca. 1315 and 1324) of the basilica di Sant'Abbondio in Como:
https://www.flickr.com/photos/renzodionigi/3493571462/


bb) as depicted (martyrdom: being flayed) in an earlier fourteenth-century French-language legendary of Parisian origin (ca. 1327), with illuminations attributed to the Fauvel Master (Paris, BnF, ms. Français 183, fol. 31v):
http://tinyurl.com/2wk3v3b 


cc) as depicted in an earlier fourteenth-century copy (ca. 1326-1350) of the _Legenda aurea_ in its French-language version by Jean de Vignay (Paris, BnF, ms. Français 185, fol. 43v):
http://tinyurl.com/3697fvv

dd) as depicted (martyrdom; being flayed) in an earlier fourteenth-century fresco (ca. 1335) in the cappella di San Giovanni in the chiesa dei Domenicani in Bolzano / Bozen:
http://tinyurl.com/qbhhjqt


ee) as portrayed (seated) in a probably mid- to later fourteenth-century statue (ca. 1340-1380; once routinely attributed to Nicola da Monteforte) in Benevento's basilica cattedrale metropolitana di Santa Maria de Episcopio:
http://tinyurl.com/gul9v


ff) as depicted (martyrdom: being flayed) by Giovanni da Milano in a predella panel of his mid-fourteenth-century Prato polyptych (ca. 1343-1363) in that city's Pinacoteca comunale:
http://tinyurl.com/qa5688z

gg) as depicted (holding his flayed skin) in the Litanies section of a later fourteenth-century miscellany of mostly French-language devotional texts (between 1351 and 1400; Paris, BnF, Français 400 [Colbert 1432], fol. 26r):
http://tinyurl.com/nuych9l


hh) as depicted (at left; at right -- in a separate fragment from the same dismembered altarpiece--, St. Anthony of Egypt) by Lorenzo Veneziano in a later fourteenth-century panel painting (1368?) in the Pinacoteca nazionale in Bologna:
http://tinyurl.com/q2bv7me

ii) as depicted in a later fourteenth-century Roman missal of north Italian origin (ca. 1370; Avignon, Bibliothèque-Médiathèque Municipale Ceccano, ms. 136, fol. 264v):
http://www.enluminures.culture.fr/Wave/savimage/enlumine/irht2/IRHT_055362-p.jpg
Detail view:
http://www.enluminures.culture.fr/Wave/savimage/enlumine/irht2/IRHT_055363-p.jpg

jj) as portrayed (at left, with an abbot- or bishop-saint) in a late fourteenth-century vault boss from the Carmelite convent in Barcelona (demolished, 1875) now in the Museu d'Arte de Catalunya in the same city:







kk) as depicted by the Master of the Modena Book of Hours in a late fifteenth-century Dominican missal from Lombardy (ca. 1490-1500; The Hague, Museum Meermanno, Ms. 10 A 16, fol. 212r; zoomable image):
http://manuscripts.kb.nl/zoom/BYVANCKB%3Amimi_mmw_10a16%3A212r_init


ll) as portrayed in relief (fourth from right) on the late fourteenth- or early fifteenth-century tomb of St. Wendelin in his basilica in Sankt Wendel:
http://tinyurl.com/pepm5t9


mm) as portrayed in an earlier fifteenth-century polychromed stone statue from Burgundy (betw. 1401 and 1450) now in the Cloisters Collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (image expandable):

Saint Bartholomew




nn) as depicted (at left; at right, St. Anthony of Egypt) by Mariotto di Nardo in a pair of early fifteenth-century panel paintings (1408) in the Minneapolis Institute of Arts (image expandable):
http://www.artsmia.org/viewer/detail.php?v=12&id=1628#


oo) as depicted in an early fifteenth-century glass window panel (ca. 1410) of Austrian origin in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York:
http://www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collection-online/search/471054


pp) as depicted (at right; at left, St. Thomas the Apostle) in the early fifteenth-century Apostles Window (1419) in the Liebfrauenkirche in Ravensburg:
http://tinyurl.com/neuq4am 


qq) as depicted (at left in the wing at left; at right in that wing, St. Blasius of Sebaste / Blaise / Biagio; the corresponding figures on the other wing are St. Juvenal of Narni and St. Anthony of Egypt) by Masaccio in his earlier fifteenth-century San Giovenale triptych (1422) in the Museo Masaccio at Cascia di Reggello (FI) in Tuscany:
http://www.wga.hu/art/m/masaccio/z_panels/giovena1.jpg


rr) as depicted in a full-page miniature by the Master of Zweder van Culemborg in an earlier fifteenth-century book of hours for the Use of Utrecht (ca. 1430-1435; Amsterdam, KB, ms. 79 K 2, fol. 114v):
http://tinyurl.com/odms9rm

ss) as depicted (second from left, exorcising a demon) by the Master of Saint Bartholomew in a mid-fifteenth-century panel painting (circa. 1440-1460) from a dismembered altarpiece in the Museu d'Arte de Catalunya, Barcelona:





tt) as depicted (fourth from left) in what remains of a mid-fifteenth-century fresco of the Last Supper (ca. 1450; restored, 1870-1873) in the oratorio di San Lorenzo all'alpe Seccio in Boccioleto (VC) in Piedmont:
http://tinyurl.com/pgfny2v


uu) as depicted (martyrdom: being flayed) in a later fifteenth-century copy (ca. 1451-1500) of Jean Mansel's Fleur des histoires (Paris, BnF, ms. Français 57, fol. 39r):
http://tinyurl.com/oopeeyb

vv) as depicted (evangelizing in Armenia; martyrdom) in a later fifteenth-century copy (1463) of books 9-16 of Vincent of Beauvais' Speculum historiale in its French-language version by Jean de Vignay (Paris, BnF, ms. Français 50, fol. 337v, 338v):
1) evangelizing in Armenia:
http://tinyurl.com/nek4mjb
2) martyrdom (decapitation after flaying):
http://tinyurl.com/pgk6t98


ww) as depicted (at right, after the apostles Matthew and Barnabas) by the Master of the Eggelsberger Altarpiece on a later fifteenth-century altar (ca. 1465-1475) in the Veste Oberhaus museum in Passau:
http://tarvos.imareal.oeaw.ac.at/server/images/7006269.JPG

xx) as depicted (holding his flayed skin) by Matteo di Giovanni in a later fifteenth-century panel painting (ca. 1480) in the Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest:

http://tinyurl.com/nf26kkr

yy) as depicted (at left, holding his flayed skin; at right, Bl. Charlemagne) in an _Amtsbuch_ (register) from 1482 of the chapter of the Imperial "cathedral" dedicated to him in Frankfurt am Main, now in the Stadtarchiv Frankfurt am Main:






zz) as depicted (second from right, holding his flayed skin) in the recently restored late fifteenth-century portraits of the apostles (ca. 1490-1500) in the apse of the chapelle San Pantaleon in Gavignano (Haute-Corse):
http://elizabethpardon.hautetfort.com/media/01/02/2714715379.jpg
Detail views (Bartholomew):
http://elizabethpardon.hautetfort.com/media/01/02/1806742755.jpg

http://elizabethpardon.hautetfort.com/media/02/00/1104967850.jpg
http://elizabethpardon.hautetfort.com/media/02/01/4042760745.jpg 

aaa) as depicted (at center, with a donor) on the early sixteenth-century St. Bartholomew Altar (ca. 1503) in the Alte Pinakothek, München:





bbb) as depicted (third from left) by Giovanni Botoneri in his early sixteenth-century fresco of the Last Supper (1514) in the cappella del santuario di San Magno in Castelmagno (CN) in Piedmont:
http://www.accademiaaleramica.com/images/2011/cpc1_g.jpg